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Conformity 4. For instance, plant 6 followed the correct procedures with regard to some sections and equipment, but not throughout the plant. These are the costs of inspecting and testing to ensure that the products, parts and raw materials conform to quality requirements. These are generally the easiest type of quality costs to measure and include:.
Costs related to the in-plant internal inspection an control of raw materials, purchased ingredients and packaging.
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Costs related to in-plant internal process inspection, such as checking of semi-processed items and final products, temperature inspection and recording, including costs of compilation of quality records cost of the forms and clerical expenses. All the in-plant laboratory costs including sampling and testing. This item also includes the cost of disposable laboratory equipment and material chemicals, microbiological media, glassware, etc calibrating equipment and any outside testing services that may be used.
The salaries of quality control and inspection people professionals, technicians and workers.
Costs related to final inspection, in-plant or external. Official final inspection certificates are mandatory in some countries, and the firm should pay for them to the Government or specialized Government Agency e. In some cases in accordance with a contractual agreement, a final certification from a third independent laboratory may be required.
As temperature is the single most important parameter in HACCP implementation, the costs related to measurement, recording and control of temperature, including calibration of equipment, should be included as appraisal costs. According to the new regulations in Canada, USA and the EU, now being implemented, fishery products manufactured outside the proposed HACCP-based systems will have to pass through independent full sampling and analysis.
If applied, these regulations will increase the appraisal costs of the companies that do not conform with the new regulations. The cost of objective and subjective analysis to determine safety and quality of fishery products is a key component of appraisal costs. This type of cost can be due to internal or external voluntary or mandatory quality control and inspection.
In principle, cost of analysis is easy to determine. It comprises the cost of chemical reagents and media, disposable glassware, analyst's time sampling, sample preparation, travel time, analysis time, time of analysis interpretation and reporting and dead time , energy some analyses require notable use of electricity , cost of samples and administrative overheads. If fixed costs are to be included in the picture, the proportion of depreciation of the laboratory, facilities and equipment should be added.
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As discussed in section 8. The inclusion of a laboratory in a plant will depend on an economic comparison of the cost of performing the analysis in-plant or contract a external laboratory to do them. Small plants may find more convenient to contract a laboratory service rather than to have their own; however, this will depend on the volume of production, type of product and legal and contractual requirements. It may be difficult to determine the cost of in-plant analysis, because in practice very often the analyst is used in many other functions, e.
However, it is relatively easier to establish the cost of external analysis. In Table 8. In the case of Canada and Mexico the cost that appears in Table 8. From Table 8. However, the advantage of low wages may be offset by the increased cost of reagents, media, glassware and equipment that should be imported, and sometimes labour productivity. Reinspection fees are higher than those that appear in this table e. If the values for USA of Table 8. Tables 8. In the case of USA private laboratories could be called upon by the competent authority to perform inspection analysis on request.
In this case, costs are charged at the current cost of the private laboratory. Excluded the states of Alaska and Minnesota. It includes sampling and travel time mileage costs are assessed separately. The type of analysis and the number of samples for each shipment are determinant in defining the total appraisal cost, particularly in fish inspection and quality systems based on analysis of final products. The number of samples to be analysed depends on the size of the lot, and on the degree of reliability pursued.
In the case of fish inspection, regulations could specify the number of samples to be drawn from a lot. A case for a lot composed of product units with a weight equal or less than 1 kg each, is presented in Table 8. As costs presented in Tables 8. Private laboratories will usually charge higher fees than official laboratories, and report or certificates produced may have not the same legal value of those of official laboratories.
However, it is very common that seller and buyer may agree on a private laboratory to check lots, since obviously official laboratories cannot cope with all the existing trade.
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Values of N, n, AQL, 6. A sampling plan with AQL of 6. Values in brackets correspond to reinspection, according with Sampling plan II n and c , and respective reinspection fees. In practice, an exporter may be put in the situation to pay for the quality appraisal of a lot more than once. It may expend to check at plant level, then pay for the local fish inspection and finally been affected by the inspection cost at the importing country.